Our study has several important limitations. These participants were uncertain as to whether adoption worker attitudes were real barriers to the adoption process. This barrier not only prolonged their journey to parenthood, but also engendered feelings of sadness and anger insomuch as it made salient negative broad-level societal views of same-sex parenting Goldberg et al. Couples had been waiting an average of 7. Psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic relationships of adolescents with same-sex parents. Fourteen individuals one couple; Bronfenbrenner U, Morris PA.
Our analysis was informed by an ecological systems framework Bronfenbrenner, such that throughout the coding process we paid close attention to how perceived challenges were impacted by personal experiences, larger societal norms, and legal regulations.
Interestingly, all of the six non-White participants, all of whom were members of an interracial lesbian couple, were willing to adopt a child of color despite living in predominantly White areas. These participants, such as Ella, became skilled in creating families of choice to help buffer the painful effects of nonsupport from their own families: Who am I in relation to them? Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services.
That is, while they did not tend to have a large variety of support resources to draw upon, and often met overt nonsupport from certain sources, they were generally able to locate and rely on at least one source of social support.